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WEBVTT kvos special 19 01 s20a

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It's a difficult time for anyone
between the ages of 18 and 21.

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They're becoming people, and
up to this point in life,

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they've been dependent.

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They've been children in
the home of their fathers.

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Very frequently, as with
most of our students,

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they're away from home for
the first time in their lives,

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and they're having
to make decisions

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for themselves of the sort
that were normally made,

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if not as a group, made in
consultation with some one

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other person in the family.

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But it's a very, very hard
time in life for them.

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They're expected to become
intellectually mature,

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emotionally mature,
and physically mature

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all at the same time.

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And the youngsters today,
they come into your office,

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they'll often come to talk
to you about their classwork.

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The professor learns
at his colleagues.

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This program was
edited from four hours

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of separate conversations,
and has been

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arranged to form a dialogue.

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Participating are professors
Katherine Carroll,

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Charles Flora, Arthur Hicks,
James MCAree, Richard Reynolds,

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Herbert Taylor, Ralph
Thompson, and Mary Watrous,

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all of Western Washington
State College in Bellingham.

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They think that they are
going through this alone,

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that the experience is unique,
that no one else has ever

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gone through it.

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But this would
happen, of course,

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I think, even to students, or
even to young people outside

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of a college.

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It happens, however, without
the kind of intensity

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that is common here.

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It is the nature, I think,
of young people whose lives

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are changing greatly under
the impact of learning to feel

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sometimes like odd men out.

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And all too often, if you cannot
understand this intellectually

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and respond to it accordingly,
you respond to it in outbursts,

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either a good-humored
prankishness.

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Or sometimes, you respond to
it in outbreaks of just plain

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out and out violence.

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I refuse to be very seriously
alarmed about such an episode,

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for instance, as the
smashing of a piano.

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Much as I love music and
much as I admire the piano

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as an instrument of
musical expression,

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I refuse to be very
seriously disturbed

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by this little incident.

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It's a part of the
nature, I think,

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of young people
to let off steam.

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It has always been so.

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As an historian, for
instance, I am always

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impressed when I am reading
documents of the Middle Ages

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at the kind of hijinks that
the students went through even

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then.

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For instance, there is a
celebrated proclamation

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issued by the regent of
the University of Paris

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back in the 13th
century in which he

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warns that any students
caught in the future playing

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dice on the high altar
of Notre Dame Cathedral

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will be forthwith dismissed
from the institution.

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I think it's natural,
because I think

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an 18 or 20-year-old individual,
a 17-year-old individual,

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a 16-year-old individual
probably one of the main things

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they think about life is sex.

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Now, they're unable to realize
their ambitions in this regard.

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So I think there ought to be
some outlet for their energies.

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And this is one possible outlet.

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The value of extra curricular
activities interests me.

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Some of the students
seem to think of them

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as a means of release.

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The college curriculum,
by necessity,

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is very well structured.

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And yet the student
activities program in itself,

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by its very nature, is flexible.

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For instance,
within a department,

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if a group of students are
interested in pursuing,

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let's say, a foreign language,
or a particular subject

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in biology or botany,
that they can do this

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on an extracurricular level.

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They can go beyond what
is done in the classroom.

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These tend to attract
a minority of students.

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No, I don't think these
extracurricular activities

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actually do siphon off any
great amount of energy.

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They tend to give a forum to
those students who have already

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marked out perhaps some
professional objective which

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can be advanced by participation
in student government,

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in the newspaper.

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I, on the other hand, I
think that if they did not

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have student government,
and if they did not

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have the newspaper, they would
be most unhappy, because it's

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traditional to
have these things,

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and they're convinced
that they don't have them,

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they're missing something
that's a proper right to have.

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But I don't think it does
most of them an ounce of good.

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Now, in the social
field, I suspect

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that social relations
of college students

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become most difficult when they
have to live in group housing.

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Many of them haven't had to live
with large numbers of students

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in dormitories or
in college housing.

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And problems of study--

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when you have large numbers
of people, the temptation

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to socialize instead
of study, if you're not

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inclined to want to
be a learner anyhow,

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this is very attractive.

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You can always go off
someplace, and talk to somebody,

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and have a lot of fun.

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I tend to deplore
the system that

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presumes that each student must
have a roommate or two or three

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roommates.

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I rather like the
European system,

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where each student has his own
room and his own private place

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to study.

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I think we pursue group
activity ad nauseum at times.

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If a student feels that he
does belong to an institution,

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he is going to do better
in his academic life

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than if he feels he
does not really fit in.

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A dormitory can go a long
way toward building this self

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feeling that you do
belong to an institution.

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I can remember my
own dormitory life,

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and all the dormitory
was for me was a place

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to get out of as
quick as I could when

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I wanted to learn something.

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It interfered more than
it ever contributed.

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Now, this might
have been the fault

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of the dormitory I was in.

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It might in part
have been my fault,

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the fault of the students.

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It might have been the
fault of the college.

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I don't know.

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I don't think that dormitories,
as I have seen them,

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are very conducive to
the learning process.

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I think also, coffee shops are
much overrated in this regard.

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I don't think that they are
very effective places in which

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to learn.

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If they weren't
here, I don't feel

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that they would be spending
their time in the library

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or they would be spending
their time in their biology

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or chemistry lab.

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They probably would be sitting
in a dorm, or in the lounge,

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or on the stairways
of a building,

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and I don't think that
is really detracting

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at all from their studies.

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I think that the
coffee shop should

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be a place where faculty as
well as students comingle,

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and that the faculty member
should see in himself

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the responsibility
of using that coffee

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shop as some kind of classroom.

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I think it might even be wise
occasionally for the faculty

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member to prepare
for that classroom,

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and to go to the coffee shop
with a particular series

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of problems or
questions in mind,

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or even occasionally to bring
something with them about which

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he can develop some
kinds of problems,

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and then lead this discussion.

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In that sense, I think
that the coffee shop can

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become a learning situation.

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I don't think they normally are.

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I think they're a waste of time.

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I think the primary
function of a college

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is intellectual awakening.

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We've got to awaken curiosity
about the whole great big

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wonderful world, not
just the present,

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but the past world, too.

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The human being is a
strange sort of creature.

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At infancy, as it begins to
walk, talk, and become aware

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of the world around
it, its curiosity

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knows no limits whatever.

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It will lead a child, an infant,
into very dangerous positions

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investigating things that catch
the eye and make a blunder.

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Now, we lose this
as we grow older.

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We accumulate a certain
amount of information

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and assume that that's all
there is that we need to have,

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that there are limits
upon what we need

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to get along in this world.

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One of the exciting things
about being a teacher

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is to point out that the world
is so infinite in variety

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that we can make a student
awaken up to the idea

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that the whole wide world
is there to be seen,

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to be investigated as an
infant would investigate

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it, and perhaps get himself
out on a dangerous limb

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in the process, hoping, of
course, you'll come back.

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But you must go out and
look at these things.

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How do we awaken
curiosity in a student?

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Well, first place, I think
the professor must surely

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be an example.

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He must demonstrate that
he himself has curiosity.

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He must demonstrate that he
has enthusiasm for his subject.

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And one of the ways
of demonstrating

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that you have enthusiasm
for your subject

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is to demonstrate curiosity.

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Now, these things are important
that you demonstrate them

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as an instructor
because the student is

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to assume very surely if you
don't demonstrate these things,

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that there isn't anything in
the subject worth demonstrating

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them about.

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For example, I could
simply teach my subject

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as a fact by fact
by fact account

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of how something happened.

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But in reality, I have done
nothing but give the student

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a factual chronology,
or a number of facts

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strung on a chronology,
like beads on a string.

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The notion that you
can package this stuff

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as you would sardines,
and knowledge is packages

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of sardines is pure nonsense.

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What you must do in the
classroom is having presented

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a certain number of facts, you
lead the students to interpret

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what those facts mean.

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Indeed, it's, I think, a
perfectly delightful experience

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to lead a young person who
has some factual information

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through a logical process.

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And suddenly, a
kind of awakening,

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and he suddenly feels,
I thought of the idea

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that those facts
sum up, you see.

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Furthermore,
directly, I think you

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can initiate some of
this kind of curiosity

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in asking questions,
which I think

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is really synonymous, by
demanding this kind of activity

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of your students.

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You can virtually order
them to be curious.

00:11:20.860 --> 00:11:23.350 align:middle line:84%
Not saying, be curious,
now, but rather,

00:11:23.350 --> 00:11:25.360 align:middle line:84%
you can set up
situations where it

00:11:25.360 --> 00:11:29.870 align:middle line:84%
is required that they come up
with observations of their own,

00:11:29.870 --> 00:11:34.720 align:middle line:84%
and that they postulate,
that they ask questions that

00:11:34.720 --> 00:11:37.570 align:middle line:84%
are their own, that they
seek answers in ways that

00:11:37.570 --> 00:11:39.940 align:middle line:84%
are their own, that
they postulate solutions

00:11:39.940 --> 00:11:41.510 align:middle line:90%
to questions that are their own.

00:11:41.510 --> 00:11:43.770 align:middle line:84%
You can expect
this of a student.

00:11:43.770 --> 00:11:48.600 align:middle line:84%
I have found that when I
expect this, I tend to get it.

00:11:48.600 --> 00:11:51.700 align:middle line:84%
And I know that further,
when a student develops

00:11:51.700 --> 00:11:54.160 align:middle line:84%
the habit of doing this through
being expected to do it,

00:11:54.160 --> 00:11:55.605 align:middle line:90%
it carries on.

00:11:55.605 --> 00:11:57.730 align:middle line:84%
It's not a one-shot enterprise
that he does it here

00:11:57.730 --> 00:11:58.480 align:middle line:90%
and then stops it.

00:11:58.480 --> 00:12:00.490 align:middle line:90%
You can't turn it off that way.

00:12:00.490 --> 00:12:02.410 align:middle line:84%
Once you've gotten
into the habit

00:12:02.410 --> 00:12:04.990 align:middle line:84%
of being curious about
things and asking

00:12:04.990 --> 00:12:07.960 align:middle line:84%
why this particular worm is
located at this particular spot

00:12:07.960 --> 00:12:12.310 align:middle line:84%
now, pretty soon it becomes
an entrenched attitude

00:12:12.310 --> 00:12:13.390 align:middle line:90%
and will carry on.

00:12:13.390 --> 00:12:15.310 align:middle line:84%
But it takes more
than just curiosity.

00:12:15.310 --> 00:12:19.030 align:middle line:84%
You can be curious without
having any tools to pursue

00:12:19.030 --> 00:12:20.430 align:middle line:90%
the curiosity.

00:12:20.430 --> 00:12:25.550 align:middle line:84%
You have to go beyond curiosity
to the tools, to the media,

00:12:25.550 --> 00:12:28.990 align:middle line:90%
to the independent study habits.

00:12:28.990 --> 00:12:33.190 align:middle line:84%
And it's almost a habit of
pursuing an idea until you're

00:12:33.190 --> 00:12:34.700 align:middle line:90%
satisfied with the conclusion.

00:12:34.700 --> 00:12:37.313 align:middle line:84%
And if you don't
do this, you can

00:12:37.313 --> 00:12:38.980 align:middle line:84%
be curious all your
life about something

00:12:38.980 --> 00:12:40.730 align:middle line:90%
and never get the answer to it.

00:12:40.730 --> 00:12:46.150 align:middle line:84%
I think it is impossible to
teach a course in biology

00:12:46.150 --> 00:12:48.400 align:middle line:84%
in which the
qualities of curiosity

00:12:48.400 --> 00:12:51.220 align:middle line:84%
are awakened without
their learning

00:12:51.220 --> 00:12:54.680 align:middle line:84%
at the same time, the more
mundane aspects of biology.

00:12:54.680 --> 00:12:56.500 align:middle line:84%
My goodness, any
discipline today,

00:12:56.500 --> 00:12:59.740 align:middle line:84%
and the way that the information
in a discipline is building up,

00:12:59.740 --> 00:13:01.480 align:middle line:90%
you can't tell them everything.

00:13:01.480 --> 00:13:03.220 align:middle line:84%
But what you can
do is teach them

00:13:03.220 --> 00:13:07.060 align:middle line:84%
a method whereby they
analyze the materials

00:13:07.060 --> 00:13:11.320 align:middle line:84%
of the discipline, and
then turn them loose,

00:13:11.320 --> 00:13:15.250 align:middle line:84%
and with any set of
materials that come to hand,

00:13:15.250 --> 00:13:18.080 align:middle line:84%
to use that process
in interpretation.

00:13:18.080 --> 00:13:22.840 align:middle line:84%
And it is actually awakening
them to their own potential

00:13:22.840 --> 00:13:28.870 align:middle line:84%
to analyze and to understand
the information which comes

00:13:28.870 --> 00:13:31.820 align:middle line:90%
to them from diverse sources.

00:13:31.820 --> 00:13:34.180 align:middle line:84%
Not just from libraries,
but from the experience

00:13:34.180 --> 00:13:35.980 align:middle line:90%
of life itself.

00:13:35.980 --> 00:13:40.570 align:middle line:84%
The notion that the
job of the professor

00:13:40.570 --> 00:13:43.795 align:middle line:84%
is to open up the
student's head and dump

00:13:43.795 --> 00:13:47.650 align:middle line:84%
in a lot of information
is a misconstruction

00:13:47.650 --> 00:13:50.490 align:middle line:84%
of the functions of
teaching in [INAUDIBLE]..

00:13:50.490 --> 00:13:54.010 align:middle line:84%
It would be a bad teaching
at any level, kindergarten

00:13:54.010 --> 00:13:56.800 align:middle line:90%
through graduate school.

00:13:56.800 --> 00:14:02.020 align:middle line:84%
The main function of the
teacher knowing the materials

00:14:02.020 --> 00:14:05.500 align:middle line:84%
in his field is to
set some structures

00:14:05.500 --> 00:14:08.080 align:middle line:84%
within which the
student may work

00:14:08.080 --> 00:14:11.770 align:middle line:84%
to find new areas of
knowledge for himself.

00:14:11.770 --> 00:14:15.420 align:middle line:84%
I do not regard myself
as primarily a teacher.

00:14:15.420 --> 00:14:17.980 align:middle line:84%
A teacher, I take it, is
charged with a much weightier

00:14:17.980 --> 00:14:22.270 align:middle line:84%
responsibility than mine, and
that is to, in some sense,

00:14:22.270 --> 00:14:28.450 align:middle line:84%
induce, inveigle, force, or
persuade children to learn.

00:14:28.450 --> 00:14:31.200 align:middle line:84%
It is my test to take
a given discipline,

00:14:31.200 --> 00:14:33.970 align:middle line:84%
and in a series of
lectures and/or seminars,

00:14:33.970 --> 00:14:36.350 align:middle line:84%
to present this discipline
as interestingly

00:14:36.350 --> 00:14:39.640 align:middle line:84%
as I may and as
authoritatively as I may,

00:14:39.640 --> 00:14:42.130 align:middle line:84%
keeping up with current
literature in the field.

00:14:42.130 --> 00:14:43.960 align:middle line:90%
Let them learn who will.

00:14:43.960 --> 00:14:46.030 align:middle line:90%
Let those attend who will.

00:14:46.030 --> 00:14:49.070 align:middle line:84%
But those fail to learn
or not attend who will.

00:14:49.070 --> 00:14:52.000 align:middle line:84%
I think this is an intrinsic
difference between a professor

00:14:52.000 --> 00:14:53.170 align:middle line:90%
and a teacher.

00:14:53.170 --> 00:14:55.990 align:middle line:84%
It is my conviction that
if the professor has

00:14:55.990 --> 00:15:00.010 align:middle line:84%
an enthusiasm for his
subject, and not only

00:15:00.010 --> 00:15:03.820 align:middle line:84%
an enthusiasm for the
subject, but certain rather

00:15:03.820 --> 00:15:07.510 align:middle line:84%
definite and positive
convictions on issues

00:15:07.510 --> 00:15:11.710 align:middle line:84%
raised by the subject, assuming,
of course, that he does not

00:15:11.710 --> 00:15:15.520 align:middle line:84%
try to ram those convictions
down his students' throats,

00:15:15.520 --> 00:15:18.940 align:middle line:84%
that he will have a greater
impact upon the class,

00:15:18.940 --> 00:15:21.370 align:middle line:84%
that they will
learn more from him.

00:15:21.370 --> 00:15:26.740 align:middle line:84%
They will be more likely to
engage in a discussion with him

00:15:26.740 --> 00:15:31.540 align:middle line:84%
than if he assumes a top lofty
bystander's point of view,

00:15:31.540 --> 00:15:35.060 align:middle line:84%
as though he were utterly
aloof and indifferent.

00:15:35.060 --> 00:15:38.470 align:middle line:84%
It's a great
intellectual battlefield.

00:15:38.470 --> 00:15:41.500 align:middle line:84%
I like to approach my classes
in biology with the idea

00:15:41.500 --> 00:15:45.400 align:middle line:84%
that I want to win every
student in that class

00:15:45.400 --> 00:15:48.310 align:middle line:90%
into biological science.

00:15:48.310 --> 00:15:49.780 align:middle line:84%
This is the way
in which I gather

00:15:49.780 --> 00:15:52.990 align:middle line:84%
the enthusiasm I need to
properly present that course.

00:15:52.990 --> 00:15:55.750 align:middle line:84%
I want every one of them
into that class, not just

00:15:55.750 --> 00:15:56.700 align:middle line:90%
the bright.

00:15:56.700 --> 00:15:59.050 align:middle line:84%
But I want the miserable
ones, the mediocre ones,

00:15:59.050 --> 00:16:03.148 align:middle line:84%
and the very fine ones to
enter biology as a field.

00:16:03.148 --> 00:16:04.690 align:middle line:84%
I don't really want
this, because you

00:16:04.690 --> 00:16:07.840 align:middle line:84%
can imagine how unfortunate it
would be if they all did this.

00:16:07.840 --> 00:16:12.590 align:middle line:84%
I simply want to approach
it with that attitude.

00:16:12.590 --> 00:16:15.550 align:middle line:84%
Well, I think that if all
college professors entered

00:16:15.550 --> 00:16:18.580 align:middle line:90%
every class with this in mind--

00:16:18.580 --> 00:16:21.520 align:middle line:84%
imagine it in history,
in anthropology,

00:16:21.520 --> 00:16:25.060 align:middle line:84%
and in every discipline that
a student is exposed to--

00:16:25.060 --> 00:16:26.980 align:middle line:84%
that when it came
time that he had

00:16:26.980 --> 00:16:33.592 align:middle line:84%
to select a profession, that
he would be in a great dilemma.

00:16:33.592 --> 00:16:35.050 align:middle line:84%
He would not be
able to say, I want

00:16:35.050 --> 00:16:41.890 align:middle line:84%
to enter this discipline because
Professor X was so very good.

00:16:41.890 --> 00:16:43.990 align:middle line:84%
Instead, what he would
have to say is, gee,

00:16:43.990 --> 00:16:46.900 align:middle line:84%
I've had such fine instruction
from so many people

00:16:46.900 --> 00:16:49.120 align:middle line:84%
that I had better
select a discipline that

00:16:49.120 --> 00:16:51.080 align:middle line:84%
is more adaptable
to my own interests,

00:16:51.080 --> 00:16:53.440 align:middle line:84%
and my own personality,
and my own abilities.

00:16:53.440 --> 00:16:59.840 align:middle line:84%
I believe that the personality
of the instructor is important.

00:16:59.840 --> 00:17:03.670 align:middle line:84%
There are brilliant scholars
who can't teach worth a darn.

00:17:03.670 --> 00:17:05.920 align:middle line:84%
On the other hand,
there are some teachers

00:17:05.920 --> 00:17:08.260 align:middle line:84%
who are not as
brilliant scholars who

00:17:08.260 --> 00:17:13.150 align:middle line:84%
can guide, inspire, and sort
of catch the student on fire.

00:17:13.150 --> 00:17:16.119 align:middle line:84%
And quite frankly, I think
that the best teacher

00:17:16.119 --> 00:17:20.020 align:middle line:84%
has an obligation to try
to set the student on fire,

00:17:20.020 --> 00:17:24.130 align:middle line:84%
to challenge his
imagination, to excite him,

00:17:24.130 --> 00:17:29.440 align:middle line:84%
to excite his curiosity, and to
lead him to something that he

00:17:29.440 --> 00:17:31.540 align:middle line:90%
knew not of before.

00:17:31.540 --> 00:17:33.760 align:middle line:84%
Professors in time
come to believe

00:17:33.760 --> 00:17:37.930 align:middle line:84%
that they are, if not demigods,
at least the vice regents

00:17:37.930 --> 00:17:40.180 align:middle line:90%
of the Lord on this earth.

00:17:40.180 --> 00:17:44.020 align:middle line:84%
And their classes come to be
posed with this in mind that

00:17:44.020 --> 00:17:46.270 align:middle line:84%
make what goes in their
truth, and much more

00:17:46.270 --> 00:17:48.970 align:middle line:84%
important than what
goes on in the outside.

00:17:48.970 --> 00:17:50.980 align:middle line:90%
I suspect that most professors--

00:17:50.980 --> 00:17:53.340 align:middle line:84%
certainly I feel this
way concerning myself--

00:17:53.340 --> 00:17:56.900 align:middle line:84%
are at times subject to
the imperial madness.

00:17:56.900 --> 00:18:00.490 align:middle line:84%
In our own classroom, we
are virtually all-powerful.

00:18:00.490 --> 00:18:03.460 align:middle line:84%
And we therefore come to believe
what we say from the lecture

00:18:03.460 --> 00:18:06.910 align:middle line:84%
podium, rather than realizing
that at best, we approximate

00:18:06.910 --> 00:18:10.570 align:middle line:84%
truth, that we
frequently mutilate it,

00:18:10.570 --> 00:18:12.760 align:middle line:84%
and that in any
event, we don't know

00:18:12.760 --> 00:18:17.710 align:middle line:84%
enough to be effective
in some of the areas

00:18:17.710 --> 00:18:19.090 align:middle line:90%
that we purport to cover.

00:18:19.090 --> 00:18:23.860 align:middle line:84%
I believe that the teacher has
an obligation to pursue truth

00:18:23.860 --> 00:18:28.060 align:middle line:84%
and to tell the student,
or to show the student, put

00:18:28.060 --> 00:18:30.520 align:middle line:84%
the student on to, if
only through books,

00:18:30.520 --> 00:18:33.670 align:middle line:84%
what is generally
conceived to be truth

00:18:33.670 --> 00:18:35.650 align:middle line:90%
or to let him look at truth.

00:18:35.650 --> 00:18:38.260 align:middle line:84%
On the other hand,
the student can

00:18:38.260 --> 00:18:41.080 align:middle line:90%
read much of the past in books.

00:18:41.080 --> 00:18:45.790 align:middle line:84%
And I think the student wants to
know what the professor thinks.

00:18:45.790 --> 00:18:49.030 align:middle line:84%
The thing that worries me is
that sometimes, the professor

00:18:49.030 --> 00:18:52.810 align:middle line:84%
may expound as truth
what he only thinks,

00:18:52.810 --> 00:18:54.970 align:middle line:84%
and not let the student
know that this is just

00:18:54.970 --> 00:18:56.470 align:middle line:90%
his own opinion.

00:18:56.470 --> 00:18:59.920 align:middle line:84%
I hate to see this kind of
subtle indoctrination happening

00:18:59.920 --> 00:19:00.947 align:middle line:90%
in the classroom.

00:19:00.947 --> 00:19:02.530 align:middle line:84%
Well, indeed, of
course, the professor

00:19:02.530 --> 00:19:08.340 align:middle line:84%
does have a great
deal of influence.

00:19:08.340 --> 00:19:13.120 align:middle line:84%
He can set patterns of thought,
can even by his example,

00:19:13.120 --> 00:19:17.800 align:middle line:84%
set patterns of behavior in his
students that will last perhaps

00:19:17.800 --> 00:19:19.420 align:middle line:90%
a lifetime.

00:19:19.420 --> 00:19:22.540 align:middle line:84%
And he's got to be very careful,
I think, in his relationship

00:19:22.540 --> 00:19:28.480 align:middle line:84%
with a student in order
not to impress upon him

00:19:28.480 --> 00:19:31.480 align:middle line:84%
certain patterns that might
not really be desirable

00:19:31.480 --> 00:19:35.650 align:middle line:84%
or might not be suitable
to that young person.

00:19:35.650 --> 00:19:39.490 align:middle line:84%
He can wield a kind of
Machiavellian influence,

00:19:39.490 --> 00:19:40.420 align:middle line:90%
too, if he wishes to.

00:19:40.420 --> 00:19:41.930 align:middle line:90%
And it's done.

00:19:41.930 --> 00:19:43.240 align:middle line:90%
It's done.

00:19:43.240 --> 00:19:45.220 align:middle line:84%
Yes, I think there is
a danger of forming

00:19:45.220 --> 00:19:47.150 align:middle line:90%
a student in your own image.

00:19:47.150 --> 00:19:48.760 align:middle line:84%
If we can imagine
a college campus

00:19:48.760 --> 00:19:53.580 align:middle line:84%
where there are 300
miserably poor teachers--

00:19:53.580 --> 00:19:55.330 align:middle line:84%
granted, this is a
theoretical situation--

00:19:55.330 --> 00:20:01.050 align:middle line:84%
but 300 miserably poor
teachers and one shining star,

00:20:01.050 --> 00:20:03.550 align:middle line:84%
then I think the
problem is real,

00:20:03.550 --> 00:20:05.620 align:middle line:84%
that there will be a
tendency for almost all

00:20:05.620 --> 00:20:08.590 align:middle line:84%
the students to try and go into
the profession of the shining

00:20:08.590 --> 00:20:10.240 align:middle line:90%
star.

00:20:10.240 --> 00:20:14.320 align:middle line:84%
I think that if you have a
great many very fine professors,

00:20:14.320 --> 00:20:16.680 align:middle line:84%
the odds of this kind of
thing developing are poor.

00:20:16.680 --> 00:20:19.270 align:middle line:84%
But by the time the student
comes to college he is--

00:20:19.270 --> 00:20:21.850 align:middle line:84%
and I think layman and
professor are alike that we tend

00:20:21.850 --> 00:20:23.600 align:middle line:90%
to forget this on occasion--

00:20:23.600 --> 00:20:25.950 align:middle line:90%
a man or woman grown.

00:20:25.950 --> 00:20:30.840 align:middle line:84%
He is not easily changed in
terms of moral value judgments.

00:20:30.840 --> 00:20:34.140 align:middle line:84%
A great deal of the ink that
is spilt and anguish that

00:20:34.140 --> 00:20:38.260 align:middle line:84%
is poured out over professors
influencing the tender

00:20:38.260 --> 00:20:41.160 align:middle line:84%
minds of the students
ignore the fact

00:20:41.160 --> 00:20:44.580 align:middle line:84%
that the Boobus Americanus
Collegiansus is probably

00:20:44.580 --> 00:20:46.920 align:middle line:84%
about as tough-minded an
individual as ever come down

00:20:46.920 --> 00:20:48.125 align:middle line:90%
the pike normally.

00:20:48.125 --> 00:20:49.800 align:middle line:84%
Now, that they're not
readily influenced

00:20:49.800 --> 00:20:52.140 align:middle line:84%
by their professors--
that much more readily,

00:20:52.140 --> 00:20:54.390 align:middle line:84%
they question what
a professor says

00:20:54.390 --> 00:20:55.953 align:middle line:90%
than accept it whole cloth.

00:20:55.953 --> 00:20:57.870 align:middle line:84%
And certainly, this is
true when the professor

00:20:57.870 --> 00:21:00.750 align:middle line:84%
begins making pronouncements
ex cathedra concerning

00:21:00.750 --> 00:21:04.440 align:middle line:84%
manners, morals, mores,
politics, or religion.

00:21:04.440 --> 00:21:07.560 align:middle line:84%
At the same time, I think
we have a heavy obligation

00:21:07.560 --> 00:21:11.460 align:middle line:84%
to let the student know how
we feel about these things.

00:21:11.460 --> 00:21:13.350 align:middle line:84%
If we don't, there
certainly isn't anything

00:21:13.350 --> 00:21:15.810 align:middle line:84%
that the student can't
get over in the library.

00:21:15.810 --> 00:21:18.480 align:middle line:84%
Are you familiar with the
study which the editors of Time

00:21:18.480 --> 00:21:21.120 align:middle line:84%
did in publishing in the book
called They Went to College?

00:21:21.120 --> 00:21:21.840 align:middle line:90%
No.

00:21:21.840 --> 00:21:24.510 align:middle line:84%
They addressed themselves
to this problem in a chapter

00:21:24.510 --> 00:21:28.050 align:middle line:84%
on the inculcation of religious,
philosophical, and political

00:21:28.050 --> 00:21:30.870 align:middle line:90%
attitudes and beliefs.

00:21:30.870 --> 00:21:32.500 align:middle line:84%
Specifically, they
asked the question,

00:21:32.500 --> 00:21:36.300 align:middle line:84%
are college students
changed in political belief

00:21:36.300 --> 00:21:39.000 align:middle line:84%
by the effect of
going to college?

00:21:39.000 --> 00:21:41.970 align:middle line:84%
The editors of Time could
find no conclusive evidence--

00:21:41.970 --> 00:21:44.460 align:middle line:84%
indeed, very little
inconclusive evidence--

00:21:44.460 --> 00:21:48.090 align:middle line:84%
that the political
beliefs of the instructors

00:21:48.090 --> 00:21:50.530 align:middle line:90%
influenced the child at all.

00:21:50.530 --> 00:21:53.880 align:middle line:84%
In fact, I think it is
notorious that the Ivy League

00:21:53.880 --> 00:21:58.680 align:middle line:84%
colleges, the overwhelming
majority of PhDs instructing

00:21:58.680 --> 00:22:01.230 align:middle line:90%
in the subjects are Democrats.

00:22:01.230 --> 00:22:04.750 align:middle line:84%
The overwhelming number of
the alumni, on the other hand,

00:22:04.750 --> 00:22:05.880 align:middle line:90%
are Republican.

00:22:05.880 --> 00:22:08.040 align:middle line:84%
And it's been this
way for donkeys years.

00:22:08.040 --> 00:22:10.260 align:middle line:84%
What it seems to
me a good teacher

00:22:10.260 --> 00:22:15.070 align:middle line:84%
does is to teach a student
to respect his own opinion,

00:22:15.070 --> 00:22:20.700 align:middle line:84%
but to be certain how he
handles the facts as he reaches

00:22:20.700 --> 00:22:22.560 align:middle line:90%
that opinion.

00:22:22.560 --> 00:22:25.260 align:middle line:84%
Much of the teaching process--
and I think this is true of any

00:22:25.260 --> 00:22:29.820 align:middle line:84%
discipline, and it's a kind of
truism that will apply to every

00:22:29.820 --> 00:22:30.990 align:middle line:90%
subject--

00:22:30.990 --> 00:22:36.330 align:middle line:84%
is to teach the student the
facts by themselves are not

00:22:36.330 --> 00:22:40.140 align:middle line:84%
adequate, but that the facts
as interpreted by the professor

00:22:40.140 --> 00:22:44.670 align:middle line:84%
are not the only adequate
means of explaining

00:22:44.670 --> 00:22:46.860 align:middle line:90%
any particular phenomenon.

00:22:46.860 --> 00:22:50.370 align:middle line:84%
But that he must bring
the totality of what

00:22:50.370 --> 00:22:55.620 align:middle line:84%
he knows to a particular
topic under consideration

00:22:55.620 --> 00:23:00.570 align:middle line:84%
and reach mature and sound
judgments of his own.

00:23:00.570 --> 00:23:02.070 align:middle line:84%
I think in discussions
of this sort,

00:23:02.070 --> 00:23:04.440 align:middle line:84%
we frequently ignore
the responsibility

00:23:04.440 --> 00:23:08.910 align:middle line:84%
of the student in the
business of academe.

00:23:08.910 --> 00:23:11.670 align:middle line:84%
But obviously, the
primary responsibility

00:23:11.670 --> 00:23:15.120 align:middle line:84%
for any kind of learning rests
squarely upon the learner.

00:23:15.120 --> 00:23:19.020 align:middle line:84%
And all that any instructor can
do at any level is hope to lead

00:23:19.020 --> 00:23:22.470 align:middle line:84%
them in a path by which they
can most efficiently do this,

00:23:22.470 --> 00:23:25.200 align:middle line:90%
but they cannot make them learn.

00:23:25.200 --> 00:23:27.540 align:middle line:90%
They must do this themselves.

00:23:27.540 --> 00:23:30.210 align:middle line:84%
I think many students just take
courses because they're there

00:23:30.210 --> 00:23:33.150 align:middle line:84%
to take, and they have to
be taken, without reference

00:23:33.150 --> 00:23:35.940 align:middle line:90%
to, what am I doing now?

00:23:35.940 --> 00:23:38.190 align:middle line:90%
Why am I doing it?

00:23:38.190 --> 00:23:40.110 align:middle line:90%
What is it going to lead to?

00:23:40.110 --> 00:23:43.050 align:middle line:84%
And they live, in a sense, from
day to day, from examination

00:23:43.050 --> 00:23:46.380 align:middle line:84%
to examination, from textbook
chapter to textbook chapter

00:23:46.380 --> 00:23:50.290 align:middle line:84%
without reference to
overall learning goals.

00:23:50.290 --> 00:23:54.180 align:middle line:84%
They have a saying
in the student argot

00:23:54.180 --> 00:23:56.640 align:middle line:84%
that I've psyched
the professor out.

00:23:56.640 --> 00:23:58.110 align:middle line:90%
I know what he wants.

00:23:58.110 --> 00:24:02.040 align:middle line:84%
He'll give it back
on an examination.

00:24:02.040 --> 00:24:04.290 align:middle line:84%
Sometimes, college
students begin

00:24:04.290 --> 00:24:09.870 align:middle line:84%
to inquire of each other,
who is the person who

00:24:09.870 --> 00:24:12.170 align:middle line:84%
teaches this course
from whom I'm

00:24:12.170 --> 00:24:14.730 align:middle line:90%
likely to get the best grade?

00:24:14.730 --> 00:24:17.640 align:middle line:84%
If they're swapping
stories about professors,

00:24:17.640 --> 00:24:22.920 align:middle line:84%
as they usually do,
then many times,

00:24:22.920 --> 00:24:26.700 align:middle line:84%
they are less interested
in digging in and working

00:24:26.700 --> 00:24:27.510 align:middle line:90%
for themselves.

00:24:27.510 --> 00:24:31.205 align:middle line:84%
And they are, well, I
won't say a social wrong,

00:24:31.205 --> 00:24:33.300 align:middle line:84%
but I'll say that
they're perhaps

00:24:33.300 --> 00:24:36.280 align:middle line:84%
interested in taking
an easier way out,

00:24:36.280 --> 00:24:38.490 align:middle line:84%
particularly in some of
the difficult courses.

00:24:38.490 --> 00:24:40.865 align:middle line:84%
I think I would have to add,
in justice, that frequently,

00:24:40.865 --> 00:24:43.670 align:middle line:84%
classes get in the way of
acquiring an education.

00:24:43.670 --> 00:24:46.020 align:middle line:84%
A professor will
require a student

00:24:46.020 --> 00:24:49.020 align:middle line:84%
to do rote work in
the classroom when

00:24:49.020 --> 00:24:53.010 align:middle line:84%
the student would be better off
reading books on his own hook.

00:24:53.010 --> 00:24:54.660 align:middle line:84%
Sometimes, I think
therefore, a student

00:24:54.660 --> 00:24:59.260 align:middle line:84%
should rebel, particularly
the very bright student.

00:24:59.260 --> 00:25:02.220 align:middle line:84%
Here, I might point
out the haunting fact

00:25:02.220 --> 00:25:04.710 align:middle line:84%
that students who
make the honor roll

00:25:04.710 --> 00:25:07.470 align:middle line:84%
are rarely the brightest
students in a college

00:25:07.470 --> 00:25:09.010 align:middle line:90%
or university.

00:25:09.010 --> 00:25:11.550 align:middle line:84%
The brightest student in a
college or university, ever

00:25:11.550 --> 00:25:14.850 align:middle line:84%
and anon decides that he will
not study for a given exam.

00:25:14.850 --> 00:25:20.600 align:middle line:84%
He instead will read a book, or
write a poem, or go for a walk,

00:25:20.600 --> 00:25:23.040 align:middle line:84%
with the result that
he makes high B.

00:25:23.040 --> 00:25:25.590 align:middle line:84%
And the grind student,
superior but not very

00:25:25.590 --> 00:25:27.670 align:middle line:84%
superior in intelligence,
tends to make the A.

00:25:27.670 --> 00:25:31.470 align:middle line:84%
But primarily, I think
with regard to study,

00:25:31.470 --> 00:25:34.170 align:middle line:84%
or the studies of
college, his obligation

00:25:34.170 --> 00:25:39.660 align:middle line:84%
is to bring into the learning
situation as much effort

00:25:39.660 --> 00:25:45.400 align:middle line:84%
as he can to learn to be
self-directive in learning.

00:25:45.400 --> 00:25:47.520 align:middle line:84%
I think that any student
coming to a college

00:25:47.520 --> 00:25:49.710 align:middle line:84%
is undertaking a
type of contract

00:25:49.710 --> 00:25:52.500 align:middle line:84%
with the society that
provides the college for him

00:25:52.500 --> 00:25:56.280 align:middle line:84%
and with the academic
community to which he comes.

00:25:56.280 --> 00:25:58.850 align:middle line:84%
He is admitted because
he's brighter than average,

00:25:58.850 --> 00:26:01.980 align:middle line:84%
and because he's done reasonably
good work in high school.

00:26:01.980 --> 00:26:05.160 align:middle line:84%
It is assumed that
he is here to learn.

00:26:05.160 --> 00:26:08.760 align:middle line:84%
I don't think we have the time,
nor do we possess the police

00:26:08.760 --> 00:26:10.680 align:middle line:90%
powers to force him to learn.

00:26:10.680 --> 00:26:12.300 align:middle line:84%
Now, here we get
into an interaction

00:26:12.300 --> 00:26:14.370 align:middle line:84%
between professorial
responsibility and student

00:26:14.370 --> 00:26:15.810 align:middle line:90%
responsibility.

00:26:15.810 --> 00:26:18.750 align:middle line:84%
In many cases, we simply do
not interest the bright student

00:26:18.750 --> 00:26:23.490 align:middle line:84%
enough to cause him to put
out the maximal effort.

00:26:23.490 --> 00:26:25.110 align:middle line:84%
In many cases, on
the other hand,

00:26:25.110 --> 00:26:27.750 align:middle line:84%
demands of urgent
biology, the social life,

00:26:27.750 --> 00:26:30.520 align:middle line:84%
the desire to be a big man
on campus, or what have you,

00:26:30.520 --> 00:26:32.910 align:middle line:84%
get in the way of
acquiring an education.

00:26:32.910 --> 00:26:35.520 align:middle line:84%
As I look at the developments
in the areas of knowledge,

00:26:35.520 --> 00:26:38.400 align:middle line:84%
I don't think we're going to be
able in four years of college

00:26:38.400 --> 00:26:41.400 align:middle line:84%
to say that a person at
any point in his life

00:26:41.400 --> 00:26:43.870 align:middle line:90%
is now an educated person.

00:26:43.870 --> 00:26:47.220 align:middle line:84%
You can say about him only,
he has the characteristics

00:26:47.220 --> 00:26:48.720 align:middle line:90%
of an educated person.

00:26:48.720 --> 00:26:53.280 align:middle line:84%
But to say that he
is now educated, no.

00:26:53.280 --> 00:26:55.540 align:middle line:84%
He doesn't bear the
stamp of educated.

00:26:55.540 --> 00:26:58.840 align:middle line:84%
He bears the stamp of, he
is now educating himself.

00:26:58.840 --> 00:27:00.390 align:middle line:84%
He has the tools
to educate himself.

00:27:00.390 --> 00:27:03.300 align:middle line:84%
Because as knowledge
expands in all areas,

00:27:03.300 --> 00:27:08.100 align:middle line:84%
as more is to be known, as
fields are changing rapidly,

00:27:08.100 --> 00:27:12.930 align:middle line:84%
and as people have to be
retreaded, if you will,

00:27:12.930 --> 00:27:16.590 align:middle line:84%
for new jobs, this becomes
an ever-increasing problem

00:27:16.590 --> 00:27:17.940 align:middle line:90%
with our society.

00:27:17.940 --> 00:27:23.530 align:middle line:84%
We have to acquire facility
and acquiring new knowledge.

00:27:23.530 --> 00:27:25.770 align:middle line:84%
And if we are not
self-starters, if we are not

00:27:25.770 --> 00:27:29.100 align:middle line:84%
independent learners, when we
get out of the public schools

00:27:29.100 --> 00:27:32.720 align:middle line:84%
or when we get out of college,
there's no hope for many of us.

00:27:32.720 --> 00:27:35.640 align:middle line:84%
We'll be obsolete in 10 years,
or eight years, or five years,

00:27:35.640 --> 00:27:37.000 align:middle line:90%
in some fields.

00:27:37.000 --> 00:27:38.280 align:middle line:90%
We have to keep learning.

00:27:38.280 --> 00:27:39.630 align:middle line:90%
The doctor has to keep learning.

00:27:39.630 --> 00:27:41.005 align:middle line:84%
The teacher has
to keep learning.

00:27:41.005 --> 00:27:42.510 align:middle line:84%
The engineer has
to keep learning.

00:27:42.510 --> 00:27:44.190 align:middle line:84%
The citizen has
to keep learning.

00:27:44.190 --> 00:27:45.690 align:middle line:90%
There's no end to learning.

00:27:45.690 --> 00:27:48.450 align:middle line:84%
So we can say now
about the educated man,

00:27:48.450 --> 00:27:53.220 align:middle line:84%
he is a man who learns,
not he is a man who knows.

00:27:53.220 --> 00:27:57.390 align:middle line:84%
I think it was Eliot of
Harvard, who in an earlier day,

00:27:57.390 --> 00:28:01.990 align:middle line:84%
once defined the proper
process of higher education.

00:28:01.990 --> 00:28:04.350 align:middle line:84%
And that was to
lead the students

00:28:04.350 --> 00:28:09.360 align:middle line:84%
through the charted fields to
the edge of the unknown woods,

00:28:09.360 --> 00:28:13.380 align:middle line:84%
and to say, this far and no
further came your fathers.

00:28:13.380 --> 00:28:14.823 align:middle line:90%
Now, press you on.

00:28:14.823 --> 00:28:15.789 align:middle line:90%
[MUSIC PLAYING]

00:28:15.789 --> 00:28:21.102 align:middle line:84%
(SINGING) Guarded all
around by mountains

00:28:21.102 --> 00:28:24.483 align:middle line:90%
crowned by Baker's dome.

00:28:24.483 --> 00:28:28.350 align:middle line:90%


00:28:28.350 --> 00:28:30.440 align:middle line:84%
The Professor Looks
at His College

00:28:30.440 --> 00:28:33.350 align:middle line:84%
was edited from over four
hours of recorded interviews

00:28:33.350 --> 00:28:36.065 align:middle line:84%
with eight professors of Western
Washington State College.

00:28:36.065 --> 00:28:41.610 align:middle line:90%


00:28:41.610 --> 00:28:45.120 align:middle line:84%
This program was produced by
Al Swift and John Spalding,

00:28:45.120 --> 00:28:46.980 align:middle line:84%
and presented by
the KVOS television

00:28:46.980 --> 00:28:50.400 align:middle line:84%
department of public affairs in
cooperation with the college.

00:28:50.400 --> 00:28:53.450 align:middle line:90%
(SINGING) All hail to you.

00:28:53.450 --> 00:29:12.525 align:middle line:90%